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Английские топики, темы. Krasnodar Territory. Краснодарский край.

      Krasnodar Territory belongs to European Russia. It is located in the western part of the Caucasus. It is the southernmost Russian region. The Republic of Adygea is located within Krasnodar Region. The territory borders on Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory, and Abkhazia in the south.

      The area of the Kuban belonged to the Crimean Khanate and became a part of Russia in 1783. The Kuban Cossacks, who lived there, gradually displaced the native Tatars. Krasnodar Territory was formed in 1937.

      Krasnodar is the capital of the region. It is situated on the River Kuban. Krasnodar was founded by the Cossack in 1793.

      Other major cities are Sochi, Novorossiysk, and Armavir. Krasnodar, Maykop, and Armavir are the chief industrial centers. Tuapse and Novorossiysk are the main seaports.

      More than 90% of the population are the Russians and the Ukrainians. Their dialect is a mixture of the two languages. There are also the Armenians (5%), the Greeks, the Turks, the Tatars and the Germans.

      The economy of Krasnodar Territory is heavily agricultural. Most of the area has high quality black soil. Fruit, tea, and wine are produced here.

      Besides, there are petroleum, gas, machinery, cement, and lumber industries in our region.

      There are many health resorts in Krasnodar region, e.g. in Anapa, Gelendzhik. Sochi is the best known one with beautiful parks, fountains and old hotels.

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Krasnodar Region is the most Southern region of Russia. Its area is 76 thousand square kilometers or 0.4% of the whole territory of Russia. The greatest extension of the Region from North to South is 372 km and from West to East is 380 km. Our Region borders upon Rostovskaya Oblast, Stavropolsky Krai, Republic of Adygeya and Georgia. The Region is often called Kuban (after the name of the main stream Kuban), it borders upon two seas: Azov Sea and Black Sea. The total extension of the boundaries includes 1540 km of marine bounds. The Region consists of 38 Districts, 15 townships of regional and 11 towns of district submission, 24 settlements of the urban type 386 rural administrative districts uniting 1750 rural settlements. The City of Krasnodar is the Administrative Center of the Region. The Region is divided by river Kuban into two parts: the Northern plain (2/3 of its territory) and the Southern hilly (1/3). The main Caucasus Range begins in the valley of the river Sukko near Anapa City. The highest point in the territory of the region is the peak of Smidovich (3363 m). The climate of the greater part of the territory of Kuban is moderately temperate continental; in the Black Sea coast (to the South from Tuapse) it is subtropical. The mean January temperature in the plain is minus 3-50C, that of July is plus 22-240C. Annual precipitation is from 400 to 600 mm in the plain and to over 3242 mm in the hilly part of the region. HISTORICAL NOTE The land of Kuban is the ancient land. Favorable natural conditions and mild climate contributed to the appearance of the fist early ancient human settlements. The discovered sites of ancient people in the territory of the region permit to track practically all archeological epochs. The ancient Kuban possesses the very stormy history. Different tribe and peoples invaded this land: ancient Greeks founded here their cities-colonies, hordes of Huns, Hazars, Pechenegs, Polovtsy and Mongols and Tatars invaded the land. Colonies of Italian merchants maintained close links with Adyg tribes. Later Turks succeeded to install their influence upon Kuban. The first Slavonic settlement appeared in the Xth century after the establishment of the Russian town of Tmutarakan in the Taman peninsula which existed till the Mongol-Tatar invasion. The second tide of Russian migrants is associated with the dispersal of the uprising of Kondraty Bulavin when his associate Ignat Nekrasov brought with him the survived rebels. The regular settlement of Kuban by Russian subjects had started after two Russian-Turkey wars of the XVIIIth century. Catherine the Great granted the lands of the Taman Peninsula with the environs on June 30, 1792 to the Black Sea Host (the former Zaporozhets) which became famous after battles with Turks. The goal was to protect new South boundaries of Russia. The first group of combatant Cossacks headed by S.Bely arrived here by sea and on August 25, 1792 had landed in Taman. The territory of the Region has been composed by part of territories occupied before the Revolution by Kuban Oblast and Black Sea Province. Two administrative areas were united into the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast which in 1920 occupied the territory of 105.5 thousand square km. In 1924 the North-Caucasus Krai has been formed with the administrative center in Rostov-on-Don. In 1934 it has been divided into the Azov-Black Sea Krai (the center in Rostov-on-Don) and the Northern-Caucasus Krai (center - Stavropol). On September 13, 1937 the Azov-Black Sea Krai has been divided into the Rostovskaya Oblast and Krasnodar Region, with the territory of 85 thousand square km, including the Adygeya Autonomous Oblast. In 1991 the Adygeya Autonomous Oblast has been reorganized into the Republic of Adygeya. NATURAL RESOURCES Over 60 kinds of useful minerals have been discovered in the bowels of the Kuban land: oil, natural gas, Iodine-bromine mineral water, marble, limestone, sandstone, iron and apatite ores etc. Krasnodar Region is the land of national oil industry. The first oil wells were bored here 136 years ago in the vicinity of the stanitsa Kievskaya (Krimsky District). But even after many years of exploitation Kuban bowels annually produce 1,5-1,7 mln t of oil and up to 2 billion cubic meters of natural gas. The largest in the Europe the Azov-Kuban underground basin of fresh water is situated here. The total area of Kuban forests is over 1500 thousand hectares. POPULATION The Region is one the most densely populated regions of the country: 5068 thousand people inhabit the Region, or 3.4% of the population of Russia. Kuban is the multi-national region inhabited by over 100 nationalities.